An Overview of Industrial Scrubbers

Pollution control is an important health and safety factor that has to be met by industrial factories. To achieve this goal and maintain healthy work environment, factories install and utilize specialized air pollution control devices.There are a number of pollution control devices available to meet specific industrial needs. These include dust collector systems, industrial scrubbers, ventilation systems, and air purifiers, to name a few. Among these products, industrial scrubbers are one of the most popular devices used by various industries.Industrial scrubbers are designed to remove contaminant particulates and harmful gases from the internal factory atmosphere. Scrubbers are used to capture and control gaseous emissions within the factory. They help to prevent instances of combustion while maintain a clean and healthy work environment.A Brief Look at the History of Industrial ScrubberThe very first version of an air scrubber was developed and used in Spain in1858. It was outfitted to a pioneering submarine called Ictineu I, built by Spanish engineer Narcís Monturiol i Estarriol. The air scrubber was designed to remove carbon dioxide from the submarine. This was achieved by forcing the air through a container of calcium hydroxide. This allowed the vessel to remain underwater for long periods of time.Over the centuries, as pollution control began to receive prominence in industries, the term scrubber was given to Air Pollution Control Devices (APCD).Types of Industrial ScrubbersThere are two basic types of industrial scrubbing – wet scrubbing and dry scrubbing.

Wet Scrubbing: This method utilizes water or special cleaning solutions to capture and curb various types of contaminants. The solution comes in contact with the particulate matter and contains it before it spreads through the factory.Wet scrubbers can help to neutralize anything from dust to exhaust gases and fuel gases. It also remove corrosive gases such as ammonia and hydrochloric acid.

Dry Scrubbing: The dry scrubbing system is primarily used to remove acid gases that can act as sources for combustion within the factory. Two common gases that are contained using dry industrial scrubbers are sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride. Dry scrubbers are used to remove odorous and corrosive gases from a variety of industrial and waste water plants.
Benefits of Industrial ScrubbersThe use of scrubbers in factories can provide a variety of industrial and environmental benefits.

They are small in size and are easy to install

The collection efficiency of the scrubbers can be regulated

They consistently reduce hazardous factory emissions

They help to maintain a high level of clean air within the factory

They provide cooling for hot gases and can even be used in heat recovery
These various reasons prove the continuing popularity of industrial scrubbers in factory environments.

Industrial Reverse Osmosis – Designing Reverse Osmosis Equipment in Power Generation Facilities

In a power plant, industrial Reverse Osmosis equipment (RO) is used almost exclusively in the boiler water pre-treatment area. Since most power boilers tend to operate at elevated pressure (>700 psig [4.8 MPa]), boiler feed water quality is very stringent. As a result, industrial Reverse Osmosis Equipment in this application is invariably followed by some type of demineralization (demin) polishing equipment, designed to reduce feed water dissolved solids, especially silica, to very low levels. Industrial Reverse Osmosis equipment, by itself, is incapable of providing the boiler feed water quality demanded by higher pressure power boilers.Because the polishing demineralization equipment in a power generation facility will be sized upon the expected industrial Reverse Osmosis equipment performance (permeate water quality and quantity), any problems with the Reverse Osmosis equipment operation can have drastic effects on the demin performance. Poor demin performance can cause costs to increase sharply, through increased regenerations and acid/caustic usage. Further downstream, the impact of poor industrial Reverse Osmosis equipment performance on the power generation boilers can be severe, ultimately leading to plant de-rating, and even boiler and turbine damage.Understanding Reverse Osmosis Design for a Power Generation Facility There are four main components of an industrial Reverse Osmosis equipment system: Element, Array (Train), Stage, and Pass.The industrial Reverse Osmosis Element is the building block of any RO equipment system. It is the individual component, where the RO process occurs.There are four main designs for the elements:
Spiral Wound – Most common design for water purification
Hollow Fiber – Very large membrane surface areas are possible in this design. Used in seawater desalination
Large Tube – Similar to a shell-and tube heat exchange in appearance and design. Used in special wastewater treatment and food processing applications
Flat Plate – Similar to a plate-and frame heat exchanger. Used in food processing applications
Regardless of the element design, high pressure and flow is needed to force pure water through the RO membrane to become permeate. Because of the high pressures needed, each element must be designed so that the internal structures can withstand a feedwater pressure of several hundred psig.The number of elements needed will be determined by the amount of the final product needed daily. The industrial RO equipment Array is simply the way in which the elements are grouped together, in series or parallel.An industrial RO Stage Final water quality requiredDaily amount of water neededInlet feed water qualityCost to treat wastewaterType of upstream feed water treatment equipment